Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. He believed that even the wisest if humans is still ignorant, and this quote show some reflection on that thought process. Ethics is based on behavior, and … He states: "Soul is an actuality or formulable essence of something that possesses a potentiality of being besouled",[13][14] and also "When mind is set free from its present conditions it appears as just what it is and nothing more: this alone is immortal and eternal". Daniel Gray, BA; 30 Years Teaching; Letter From Student; Defending Philosophy; Value of Philosophy; Philosophy & Wonder; Philosophy Class; Former Students; Relevance of Philosophy; Teacher Burnout; Book Reviews. His father was a farmer and his mother a highly intellectual woman who was a painter, linguist, and philosophy student with a large collection of books on literature and history. Instead, they are a kind of convenient fiction, like a center of gravity, which is convenient as a way of solving physics problems, although they need not correspond to anything tangible — the center of gravity of a hoop is a point in thin air. Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet. Aristotle, following Plato, defined the soul as the core essence of a being, but argued against its having a separate existence. This is a powerful statement that underlines the aim of following virtuous acts – bad is something which you do not want for yourself, good actions are the ones which you wish to be returned to you. “Philosophy is an attempt to reason clearly and critically about all areas of experience: science, religion, art, politics, and mortality” (What is Philosophy, Para, 1). [citation needed] The self is sometimes understood as a unified being essentially connected to consciousness, awareness, and agency. It is very detrimental to note that the Buddhist and Upanisadic term for the self is called “Atman” and its opposite is called “Anatman”. A division of the soul's functions and activities is also found in Plato's tripartite theory. If there is some other thing which makes it one, this other is rather the soul. Not the body, certainly: much rather the contrary seems to be true, that the soul holds the body together; for when it departs, the body expires and decomposes. Whether it is physical or none physical components it all leads to the idea of coming into fruition with the self. Mastering the self requires strength. Ethics, or "moral philosophy," is concerned primarily with the question of the best way to live, and secondarily, concerning the question of whether this question can be answered. [citation needed], Hume's position is similar to Indian Buddhists’ theories and debates about the self, which generally considers a bundle theory to describe the mind phenomena grouped in aggregates (skandhas), such as sense-perceptions, intellective discrimination (saṃjñā), emotions and volition. A comparison between David Hume and the Buddhist concept of personal identity in which both philosophical theories deny the existence of an underlying self. He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. After completing the readings in this Indian Philosophy course I have come to realize that it is all centered, built upon and around the idea of “the self”. Many postmodern philosophers believe the only variant of Eastern and Western philosophy is that of Geographic’s however some scholars will disagree that it is not geographical but of natural language and investigated thinking.Eastern philosophy touches base with three traditions … Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. [26] Although Buddhists criticize the immutable ātman of Hinduism, some Buddhist schools problematized the notion of an individual personhood; even among early ones, such as the Pudgala view, it was approached implicitly in questions such as "who is the bearer of the bundle? Aristotle also believed that there were four sections of the soul: the calculative and scientific parts on the rational side used for making decisions, and the desiderative and vegetative parts on the irrational side responsible for identifying our needs. 1992. This is because both faith and belief serve the same epistemic function. --The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods. Ancient eastern philosophy unravels the Tao, Zen and other holistic ways of thinking about the self and the universe. The Main Principles of Eastern Philosophy are: Cosmological Unity Life is a journey towards eternal realities that are beyond the realities that surround us Inner-world dependent Self-Liberation Behavioural Ethics The Main Principles of Western Philosophy are: Feeling oneself as an element of the Divine Life is service (to God, money etc) This cosmological unity is the main point in the journey of life as it goes towards the eternal realities. Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, says "Knowing others is wisdom. Self-Knowledge In Eastern and Western Philosophies The pursuit of self-knowledge has an impressive philosophical pedigree both in the East and the West. Therefore, this makes it hard to easily try and convince someone out of his or her faith (Smith, 2008). For instance, if a knife had a soul, the act of cutting would be that soul, because 'cutting' is part of the essence of what it is to be a knife. According to Western philosophy, the self does exist, 2 With notable exceptions (e.g. He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not dependent on any physical thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance. Customarily, faith and reason were often seen as the main source for justification of religious beliefs among many people. The fuzzier Rogerian self does offer some points of commonality with the Eastern conception of the non-self, as will be clear from the discussion that follows. But if it is divisible, reason again demands, what it is that holds this together? Checkpoint: Eastern Religious Philosophy Quotes This papers intent is not to prove that eastern philosophy should be viewed through the lens On the other hand, in Eastern philosophy, the most well-known conceptions of the self are represented by the views of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and … Heraclitus), in early Western philosophy a static view of reality was taken, with substance as the carrier of properties and the basis for identity of the self. 16. Moreover, eastern ideas on the self emphasize the greater good, intuition, experiences and personal relationships. The subject of philosophy has always been divided along two lines of thinking – the eastern and the western. There is no division between eastern or western philosophy … They both laid the groundwork for the now United Nations. Philosophy: The Self-Destructive West and the Stillness of the East ... developed through my experiences studying Western Philosophy at a Canadian University and studying Eastern Philosophy on … 1. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. In a Platonic tradition, concepts were seen to entail universals, applying always and for ever. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features. 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